The influence of air filters on engine operation in trucks

Why do air filters play such an important role in transport vehicles? Due to the fact that with the air they hold up to 2.4 kg of impurities that can get into the engine. According to a report by the World Health Organization (WHO), Poland has the highest number of cities with exceeded air pollution standards. A truck, which at an average speed of 50 km/h covers a distance of 100 thousand km, consumes 2.4 million m3 of air. If there is not a filter or a filter is damaged, an average of 2.4 kg of impurities can enter the engine.

The level of pollution of European cities according to the WHO report in 2016.

With insufficient air filtering, dust particles get into the engine and partly to oil. Together with oil, the particles enter the gaps between the cylinders’ walls, the ball bearings, the pistons and the piston rings, resulting in faster wear of the components. Minor impurities are deposited also on the flow meter, which is located behind the filter on the side of purified air. This device is responsible for dosing specified amount of fuel supplied to the engine. If the signal meter is disrupted, the engine power will be increased, and thus fuel consumption will increase.
To prevent this, use filters of the highest filtering parameters. Such criteria are met by the goods produced by PZL Sędziszów, which are characterized by the highest absorption and efficiency. These filters absorb more than 4 kg of dust from the air, while the standard is approx. 2 kg. Thanks to this, they reach up to 99.95% efficiency! Their life is also longer than recommended by the producer.
To achieve such high absorption, PZL Sędziszów S.A. uses filter papers from leading European producers.


In addition, a special pleating technology, which consists of evenly distributed pleats and clear congestion, prevents the adjoining pleats from sticking together. Thanks to this filtering takes place with the entire surface of the filter medium which, after unfolding, reaches an area of up to 14 m2. With such a large surface, there may be deformations of the pleats. In order to prevent this, PZL Sędziszów uses special adhesive trickles, which stabilize the filter medium.

Production is based on materials with well-defined air flow and type of impregnation. Specially selected cellulose fibre mixtures are impregnated with phenolic and epoxy resins. Currently, the standard in the production of air filters in PZL Sędziszów involves the use of a second cartridge, a so-called fuse that protects the air supply in case of damage to the main cartridge and prevents the dust from entering the system, and when the filter is replaced. Due to the danger of flame retraction with an incorrectly set ignition advance angle, these filters use a special self-extinguishing flame retardant filter material.

Modern air filters for trucks have an optimized design corresponding to the prevailing environmental standards. Instead of metal bottoms, polyurethane seals are used, and instead of steel sheet covers, plastic reinforcement is used. The replacement of most of the metal components greatly facilitates the disposal of plastic waste products after a period of operation, which helps to protect the environment.